Electrical Engineering, Ph.D.

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

Learn more about the Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering.

About the Program

The Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering is designed to develop electrical engineers who have a clear understanding of the importance of electrical engineering. Doctoral students are prepared to identify a research area in electrical engineering and analyze the literature, develop theory, perform experimentation, and develop their own methodologically rigorous research studies. Students complete their studies with a mastery of the fundamental critical thinking and analytic skills and competencies necessary for electrical and computer engineering. Graduates are well prepared to enter the workforce in a range of engineering companies, universities, research organizations, federal agencies, and non-profit organizations.

Time Limit for Degree Completion: 7 years

Campus Location: Main

Full-Time/Part-Time Status: Students are able to complete the didactic portion of the Ph.D. degree program through classes offered after 4:30 p.m.

Interdisciplinary Study: Engineering research is highly interdisciplinary and draws on collaboration with members of the faculty and students within all departments of the College of Engineering, in the Mathematics Department and departments engaged in the study of the physical sciences, and at the School of Medicine at Temple University.

Areas of Specialization: The areas of specialization within Electrical Engineering are similar to those at the master's level:

  • Cyber Physical Systems
  • Digital Data Communication and Network
  • Digital Signal Processing and Digital Image Processing
  • Microelectronics and Computer Architectures
  • Signal Processing and Speech Processing
  • Smart Systems and Control

In the first term, the student and the ECE Graduate Program Director jointly initiate a Plan of Study. This form lists all required courses and the program requirement sequence for the student to follow. The Plan of Study is used to track the student's progress, with an annual annotation and update as the student completes various benchmarks in the Ph.D. program.

Job Prospects: The program is primarily intended for individuals who wish to pursue careers in industry, government, and academia in a highly creative environment. The program is dedicated to producing engineers who will contribute to advancements in electrical engineering. In the past, most graduates with the Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering were employed in high-tech industries in research and development positions.

Non-Matriculated Student Policy: Up to 9 credits of graduate Engineering coursework may be taken at Temple University on a non-matriculated basis and subsequently applied to the Ph.D. degree upon admission. If the applicant's undergraduate GPA was less than 3.0, a GPA of 3.25 or better is required on this non-matriculated graduate coursework to receive an admissions exception. Consequently, the Electrical Engineering Graduate Program Director may encourage those with an undergraduate GPA less than 3.0 to take their first three graduate courses prior to making formal application to the Ph.D. program. (See the relevant Graduate School policies on special admission procedures for non-matriculated students: 02.23.11.03 and 02.24.19.)

Financing Opportunities: Applicants for full-time study in the Electrical Engineering Ph.D. program are automatically considered for financial aid. Three forms of financial aid are awarded to Ph.D. students on a competitive basis:

  1. Teaching Assistantship (TA):  TA awards are made solely by the Department and require the awardee to work 20 hours per week in support of the Department's undergraduate programs. The TA is compensated with a 9-month stipend, a basic health-insurance plan, and 9 credits per term of tuition remission.
  2. Research Assistantship (RA):  Individual faculty confer RA awards, using their research funds, upon students who appear well-qualified to carry out the research. Typically, this faculty member becomes the RA's doctoral advisor. The RA normally works up to 20 hours per week and is compensated with a stipend, basic health insurance, and tuition remission.
  3. Fellowships:  Fellowships are awarded by the University in a competitive process that is open to all Ph.D. applicants. The Electrical Engineering Graduate Program Director nominates exceptional Ph.D. applicants for a University Fellowship. Fellows receive 9 to 12 months of stipend, depending on the award; basic health insurance; and 12 credits of tuition remission each Fall and Spring term. Fellows of the University have no work obligations with respect to either the Department, the College, or the University.

Because financial aid is awarded on a competitive basis, applicants are urged to complete the application as early as possible.

Admission Requirements and Deadlines

Application Deadline:

Fall: March 1
Spring: November 1; August 1 international

Applications are processed on a continual basis. Ordinarily, the applicant is informed of an admissions decision within 4 to 6 weeks of receipt of all supporting application documents.

Both admissions and financial aid award decisions originate in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering within the College of Engineering. Applicants who plan to matriculate full-time are automatically considered for financial aid awards so no separate application for financial aid is required. To ensure financial aid consideration for the intended term of study, however, applicants should submit a complete application by January 15 (Fall) and August 1 (Spring).

APPLY ONLINE to this graduate program.

Letters of Reference:
Number Required: 3

From Whom: Letters of recommendation should be obtained from college or research faculty who are familiar with the applicant's competency. If the applicant has an established career in engineering, one of the letters should be provided by the applicant's immediate supervisor. If the applicant has been out of school long enough that relevant academic reference letters appear impractical, s/he should contact the Electrical Engineering Graduate Program Director to obtain a waiver of this admission requirement.

Coursework Required for Admission Consideration: Students not adequately prepared for advanced courses may be required to take a number of prerequisites. The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering identifies the needed coursework on a case-by-case basis.

Master's Degree in Discipline/Related Discipline: A master's degree is not required, but preferred.

Bachelor's Degree in Discipline/Related Discipline: A bachelor's degree is required.

University regulations stipulate that the applicant must have earned a 3.0 grade-point average on a 4.0 scale in her/his undergraduate studies, but admission exceptions are made for a variety of circumstances. (See Graduate School Policy 02.23.11.03.) The Electrical Engineering Graduate Program Director helps the applicant navigate the admission possibilities and assists in the assessment of her/his overall educational qualifications with respect to the departmental requirements for the Ph.D. program.

Statement of Goals: Describe your relevant technical experiences, career goals, and specific research interests in one to two pages.

Standardized Test Scores:
GRE: Required. Scores must be no more than 5 years in advance of the application date. (See Graduate School Policy 02.23.12.) Applicants who require a waiver of the GRE should consult the Electrical Engineering Graduate Program Director concerning the mechanics and consequences of obtaining an exception.

TOEFL: 79 iBT or 550 PBT minimum. (See Graduate School Policy 02.23.13.01.)

Resume: Current resume required.

Advanced Standing: Both transfer credit for courses taken at another institution while matriculated at Temple and/or advanced standing credit for courses taken within the 5-year period prior to matriculating at Temple may be applied toward the Ph.D.-level didactic coursework requirement. Written approval is required from the student’s doctoral advisor, the College’s Associate Dean for Graduate Study, and the Graduate School. (See Graduate School Policy 02.24.21.) Up to six credits of advanced standing for courses taken within the 5-year period prior to matriculating at Temple may be used to satisfy the master’s-level didactic coursework requirement. Approval of the Electrical Engineering Graduate Program Director is required. The courses must be equivalent to courses offered at Temple in the student's area of study and research, and the grades must be "B" or better.

Program Requirements

General Program Requirements:

Minimum Number of Credits Required Beyond the Bachelor’s: 60, including 45 credits of graduate-level didactic coursework and 15 research credits, including preliminary Ph.D. examination and dissertation research

Minimum Number of Credits Required Beyond the Master's: 30, including 15 credits of graduate-level didactic coursework and 15 research credits, including preliminary Ph.D. examination and dissertation research

Required Courses:

Post-Baccalaureate (for students WITHOUT a master's degree in Electrical Engineering)

Didactic Courses 145
Research Courses 215
Directed Research (8 credits)
Preliminary Examination Preparation (1 credit)
Pre-Dissertation Research (3 credits)
Dissertation Research (3 credits)
Total Credit Hours60

Post-Master's (for students WITH a master's degree in Electrical Engineering)

Didactic Courses 115
Research Courses 215
Directed Research (8 credits)
Preliminary Examination Preparation (1 credit)
Pre-Dissertation Research (3 credits)
Dissertation Research (3 credits)
Total Credit Hours30

Culminating Events:
Formation of the Doctoral Advisory Committee:
Selection of a research advisor and formation of a Doctoral Advisory Committee constitute the first steps toward achieving a Ph.D. Selection of a doctoral advisor depends on the student’s level of preparation upon entering the Ph.D. program. The Doctoral Advisory Committee selects the required coursework and guides the progress of the student’s dissertation research:

  • Students entering the Ph.D. program with a master's degree, i.e., those who must complete 30 credits to earn the degree, form their Doctoral Advisory Committee before the end of their second regular term of study.
  • Students entering the program with a bachelor's degree, i.e., those who must complete 60 credits to earn the Ph.D. degree, generally complete most of their coursework before forming their Doctoral Advisory Committee by the end of their fourth regular term in the program.

See Graduate School Policy 02.28.11 for clarification on the composition of the Doctoral Advisory Committee.

Preliminary Examination:
All students generally complete their didactic coursework prior to taking the preliminary examination. (See Graduate School Policy 02.27.11.) Students in the 30-credit cohort ordinarily take the exam in their third or fourth term. Students in the 60-credit cohort typically take the exam no later than the eighth regular term. Students should register for one credit of ECE 9994 Preliminary Examination Preparation in the term when the exam will be taken.

The preliminary exam tests both the student’s core knowledge in Electrical Engineering and her/his capacity to synthesize and interpret research communications. The student coordinates the scheduling of the preliminary exam with the ECE Graduate Program Director. The ECE Graduate Program Director supervises the specific form, content, and frequency of the Electrical Engineering preliminary exam. A maximum of two opportunities to pass the preliminary exam are available to the student. In each term when the exam is attempted, the student registers for one credit of ECE 9994. Students are dismissed upon the second failure.

Dissertation Proposal:
Within a year of passing the preliminary exam, the student must develop a written research proposal and present it in an open College seminar. Ten business days prior to the presentation seminar, the student must schedule the proposal and post an announcement. Immediately following the seminar, the Doctoral Advisory Committee questions the student about the details and strategy of her/his proposed research.

Approval is granted for the proposed dissertation research when the "Dissertation Proposal Transmittal for Elevation to Candidacy" form (found in TUportal under the Tools tab within “University Forms”) has been signed off by the entire Doctoral Advisory Committee. After the dissertation proposal has been accepted by the Doctoral Advisory Committee and the Graduate School has received the form, the student is considered to be a doctoral candidate. (See Graduate School Policy 02.28.12 for more information.)

Research Credits:
Students carry out research throughout their studies and register for the corresponding research credits while in the Ph.D. program. However, the type of research credits that a student registers for depends on the student’s progress in the program:

  • Prior to passing the preliminary exam, credit hours associated with the student’s research should be registered under ECE 9991 Directed Research.
  • After the preliminary exam is passed, but before elevation to candidacy, credit hours associated with the student’s research should be registered under ECE 9998 Pre-Dissertation Research.
  • After elevation to candidacy, the student’s research credits should be registered under ECE 9999 Dissertation Research. Students are required to register for at least three credits of ECE 9999 following their elevation to candidacy. (See Graduate School Policy 02.28.15.)

Publications:
Paper writing and presentation at a conference are considered integral to the student's training. Also, peer review, in part, offers an indication of the quality and novelty of the student's research. All doctoral students must publish at least two technical papers in refereed journals or refereed conferences. The papers must be based on the student's dissertation research with the student as the first author.

Dissertation:
The dissertation defense is an open University seminar in which the student presents the concepts and results of her/his research.

The student must coordinate the formation of the Dissertation Examining Committee in the term that s/he intends to defend her/his dissertation. This committee consists of the original Doctoral Advisory Committee plus one additional “external” member who is not faculty in the College of Engineering. If the external examiner is not a member of Temple University’s Graduate Faculty, the person must be approved by the Graduate School at least four weeks prior to the dissertation defense.

The dissertation defense is to take place during a regular academic term (i.e., not scheduled during study days, final exams, or the breaks between terms). If the student is to graduate in the same term as the dissertation defense is held, then the defense should take place at least 30 days prior to the end of the term to allow for document revisions.

Three weeks prior to the defense, the members of the committee elect a Chair of the Dissertation Examining Committee. The Chair cannot be the student’s doctoral advisor. The Associate Dean of Research and Graduate Studies must approve the selection. The Chair is identified to the Graduate School in the student’s official request for permission to schedule the defense. (See Graduate School Policy 02.28.15.) The Chair’s role includes coordination of the proceedings of the defense and completion of all relevant College and Graduate School forms concerning the defense.

The dissertation document should be prepared in a format compliant with University standards. (See Graduate School Policy 02.28.18.) A copy of the completed dissertation must be provided to the committee at least three weeks before the date of the dissertation defense. Note that any Graduate Faculty may request a copy of the dissertation in advance of the defense and may participate in the defense.

A minimum of two weeks prior to the defense, a public announcement of the defense must be posted. Prior to posting, this announcement must be approved in writing by the Graduate School. (See Graduate School Policy 02.28.16.)

Immediately following the presentation, the Dissertation Examining Committee closely examines the student’s performance and her/his research. External attendees may participate in this closed portion of the defense with the permission of the Dissertation Examining Committee Chair. However, only members of the Dissertation Examining Committee may actually vote on the decision to accept the dissertation as prepared, accept the dissertation with revisions, or not accept the dissertation. If the dissertation is accepted with revisions, a revised copy of the dissertation must be submitted and approved by the Committee within 30 days of the original defense date.

Courses

ECE 5022. Engineering Analysis and Applications. 3 Credit Hours.

Vector space, basis, projection, null space, function space, L2 and space of continuous functions, Hilbert space, orthogonality, generalized Fourier series, linear transformation, adjoint transformation, eigenvalue problem, linear functional, Gateaux and Frechet differential, constrained optimization, infinite dimensional systems, complex analysis.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5033. Probability and Random Processes. 3 Credit Hours.

Sets and events, Random variables, Distribution and density functions, Functions of multiple random variables, Moments and conditional statistics, Information entropy, stochastic processes, wide-sense stationary process, ergodicity, correlation, and power spectrum of stationary processes. Applications to sampling theory and signal modulation and detection.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5116. Spacecraft Systems Engineering. 3 Credit Hours.

The concept of systems engineering is introduced using a satellite application. Systems engineering is a top-down approach to the design, implementation, testing, and deployment of large-scale systems to meet the needs of users. The topics will include systems engineering methodology, dynamics of spacecraft, and celestial mechanics. This course will also introduce the notion of invention and innovation, and how they are related to the intellectual property issues.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5314. Microelectronics. 3 Credit Hours.

Advanced study of electronic devices and their applications to linear, non-linear, and digital circuits; transistors, FET's, amplifiers, digital integrated circuits, and VLSI's; Software design emphasized. A term project will be assigned.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5324. VLSI System Design and Testing. 3 Credit Hours.

An introduction to a hierarchical design methodology of VLSI; study of basic logic elements and design methods in nMOS and CMOS; development of testable designs; the physics of MOS devices and fabrications processes; design rules and computation of circuit parameters from layout; system level design techniques; circuit structures with built-in self-test, design-for-test and self-checking features.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5314|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 5344. Fundamentals of Bio-MEMS and Biomedical Microdevices. 3 Credit Hours.

The course introduces the basic concepts for design and principle of bio-micro-electro-mechanical systems (BioMEMS) and biomedical micro-integrated systems. Wireless communication in context to biomedical devices are described. Microelectronics process modules used in the design and fabrication of MEMS and micro-integrated systems are presented. Applications of these systems in a variety of sensors and transducers are considered. Recent advances in biomedical applications of MEMS are discussed in detail.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5412. Control System Analysis. 3 Credit Hours.

Review of control concepts and application; state space representation of dynamical systems; controllability, observability; time invariant and time varying systems, design of full state feedback and output feedback systems; eigenstructure assignment; the linear quadratic regulator; Kalman filter; estimation and filtering; robust control via eigenstructure design, Kharitonov theorem, application examples.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5432. Game Theory and Applications in Engineering. 3 Credit Hours.

The course covers the basic framework for strategic games and its various manifestations. Topics include matrix games, extensive form games, mixed strategies, repeated games, Bayesian games, and cooperative games. The course continues with various applications of game theory in engineering systems. The course also covers applications of game theory as a design tool for engineering multi-agent systems, i.e., systems that are comprised of a collection of programmable decision-making components.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5512. Intro Digital Comm. 3 Credit Hours.

Baseband pulse, digital, and passband communications systems; properties and bandwidth of signals and noise; detection of signals in noise; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); distortionless transmission and intersymbol interference; pulse code modulation; amplitude, phase and frequency modulation and demodulation; simulation of communication systems.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5514. Digital Signal Processing Analysis. 3 Credit Hours.

Topics covered are: various types of digital signal processing (DSP) techniques such as convolution, correlation, and filtering, as well as Finite Impulse Response (FIR) and Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) all pass and comb digital filters, the Discrete Fourier Transform, and the use of MATLAB as a tool for DSP software tasks. A term project will be assigned.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5516. Introduction to Communication Networks. 3 Credit Hours.

Introduction to Internet and TCP and IP protocols, telephone networks, Local Area Networks, packet switching, ATM, and other related topics.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5526. Engineering Principles of Computer Intrusion and Detection. 3 Credit Hours.

This course provides an introduction of computer intrusion and detection techniques. It gives theoretical and practical foundations necessary to continue further learning of computer security. We will study and analyze critical security vulnerabilities of software design and network and information systems. The learned skills are widely used by IT security analysts in industries. At the end of the class the students will be able to understand basic concepts of intrusion detection and traffic analysis from a practical point of view. This course will provide the tools and knowledge necessary to continue further learning in computer security and advance further in the profession.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5516|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 5528. Introduction to Cryptography and Information Security. 3 Credit Hours.

This course covers the theory and practice of computer communications security. Topics include symmetric encryption, public and private key cryptography, message digests, digital signatures, secure email, and various types of authentication methods. We will review various cryptographic primitives, algorithms, intrusion attacks, and security protocols.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5538. Hardware and Industrial Control System Security. 3 Credit Hours.

This course covers the theory and practice of hardware and control system security. Topics include digital system security, side channel attacks on cryptographic systems, industrial control system security, and intellectual property protection. We will review hardware implementation of cryptographic primitives, secure hardware design, and security protocols. Note: Credits of this course will not apply to MSEE and PhD (EE) degree programs unless preapproved.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5528|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 5541. Hardware Security Lab. 3 Credit Hours.

This laboratory includes a university version of wired (with internet protocol suite of packets and layers) and wireless (with IEEE802.11 layers) equipment and physical network along with open source network security software. Depending on the application, the lab provides students flexibility to fully analyze protocols and security vulnerability with respect to the network, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), and power grid, etc. Students gain hands-on experience from role-playing both as a black-hat hacker by instigating attacks and a white-hat hacker by performing digital forensics and penetration tests. Note: Credits of this course will not apply to MSEE and PhD (EE) degree programs.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5548. Secure Computer Memory Architecture and Intrusion Prevention Methodologies. 3 Credit Hours.

This course covers physical computer memory organization and areas of vulnerability such as susceptibility to buffer overflow and Direct Memory Access (DMA) attacks. An overflow attack happens when the data written to a physical memory exceeds its allocated buffer size, which is in violation of memory safety rules. DMA happens when a data transfer is done via direct physical memory access, thus bypassing operating system's supervision. Such a "back door" access is intended to increase the hardware performance throughput but inadvertently creates a major hole in system security. This course analyzes physical memory design methodologies to prevent such intrusions. Note; Credits of this course will not apply to MSEE and PhD (EE) degree programs.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5558. Reverse Engineering. 3 Credit Hours.

This course covers methodologies, equipment and software tools used to extract information and build knowledge from sophisticated modern-era hardware and software systems for reverse engineering purposes. Some systems require invasive and destructive technique to get to the source of the information, while for others, non-invasive monitoring and fault injection are sufficient methods. Reverse engineering equipment and tools include but are not limited to debuggers, disassemblers, logic analyzers, oscilloscopes, and simulators. Note: Credits of this course will not apply to MSEE and PhD (EE) degree programs.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5562. Wireless Communications Engineering. 3 Credit Hours.

This course provides a comprehensive introduction of physical-layer wireless communications, including: Cellular concepts; Wireless channel modeling; Modulation techniques; Multiple access techniques; Channel coding and wireless system capacity; Receiver diversity; Transmit diversity and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology; Equalization; Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM); Wireless systems and standards, and latest developments in wireless technologies.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5564. Cloud Computing Security. 3 Credit Hours.

This course first introduces students to the essentials of a cloud computing environment: technologies, infrastructure, platforms, and application software. Students then build a cloud computing system to monitor its vulnerability, build security measures, and attack it to further refine the security solution. OpenNebula Systems, an open source cloud computing management toolkit and a commercial cloud computing service, will be used for the exercises.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5566. Forensics for Cyber Physical Systems Security. 3 Credit Hours.

This course first introduces students to the construct of today's cyber physical system, which is an integration of software and hardware (cyber and physical), built upon an infrastructure of communications network. Cyber physical systems are an integral part of our daily lives that must deliver ultimate safety, security, and reliability, such as in automotive, medical, transportation, power, water, and nuclear energy systems. Therefore, an attack on any such system can be catastrophic. We will analyze hardware components and structure and study their vulnerability to exact forensic artifacts, and why it is important to have trust-worthy hardware, starting from secure integrated circuit design and manufacturing as a baseline. Tools will be used in investigation and forensic analysis. Advanced topics go beyond identification of the attack vector and region, and root causes by researching on self-monitoring, self-repair and self-healing hardware.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5568. Engineering Project Quality and Risk Management, and ISO Standards. 3 Credit Hours.

This course covers quality and risk management which are under the umbrella of project management, both go hand-in-hand to ensure best practices for engineering for products. Four components of quality management are quality planning, quality assurance, qualify control and quality improvement. Also covered is ISO9001, quality management systems standards. Risk management includes enterprise risk management strategy, risk assessment, risk responses, risk communication and awareness training, and risk acceptance. Also covered is ISO 27001 and 2 on information security standards and best practices.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5572. Certificate Preparation - (ISC)2/CISSP-Information Systems Security. 3 Credit Hours.

The International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)2 is a non-profit organization that specializes in information security certifications, which demonstrate certificate owners' competence in the subject manner. (ISC)2 is known as the "world’s largest IT security organization" and among its certificates, Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) is the most widely valued. This course covers preparation for the CISSP-ISSEP certification, where ISSEP (Information System Security Engineering Professional) focuses on engineering aspects of the CISSP. The ISSEP exam focuses on four areas of information security: (1) Systems Security Engineering, (2) Certification and Accreditation (C&A) / Risk Management Framework (RMF), (3) Technical Management, and (4) United States Government Information Assurance Related Policies and Issuances. Note: Credits of this course will not apply to MSEE and PhD (EE) degree programs.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5574. Certificate Preparation - Cisco Networking Academy. 3 Credit Hours.

This course uses Cisco Networking Academy material to cover various Cisco Certified Network Security topics concentrating on network security principals, tools, and configurations, and includes a hands-on lab equipped with Cisco networking equipment. Note: Credits of this course will not apply to MSEE and PhD (EE) degree programs

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5575. Capstone Project. 3 Credit Hours.

A Capstone Project is a work-study project where a student with support from his/her sponsoring entity works on a current or emerging challenge on cybersecurity. Engineering Resilient Systems (ERS) is an example of a DoD sponsored Capstone Project. Through Capstone Project, a student will develop tools and procedures to produce a complete and robust product requirement, make efficient and effective engineering decisions, consider manufacturability of a system design, and establish a baseline resiliency including Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) against threats. Note: Credits of this course will not apply to MSEE and PhD (EE) degree programs.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5600. Graduate Seminar. 0 Credit Hours.

Required seminar for graduate students in Electrical and Computer Engineering for scientific and professional development. Speakers for these seminars include prominent researchers from academic and professional backgrounds. Students will be graded on participation of at least 70% of the bi-weekly seminars during the semester.

Department Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Departments: Engineering:Elec Engineering.
Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

ECE 5612. Advanced Processor Systems. 3 Credit Hours.

Hardware description language (Verilog) design of processor systems for digital signal processing and data communication. Projects will be assigned in simulation and synthesis of dataflow and processor architectures targeting field programmable gate arrays (FPGA).

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5622. Introduction to Computer Architecture. 3 Credit Hours.

Instruction set architectures, Register Transfer Level hardware description. Data-path design. Controller design. Caches and memory systems. Addressing. Microprogramming. Computer arithmetic. Survey of current computers and microprocessors. Projects will include Verilog/VHDL implementation of data-path components and testing them on FPGAs.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5712. Power Systems Engineering. 3 Credit Hours.

This course introduces the modern power systems and its changing landscape. The course covers the basics of power generation and transformers, and an introduction to power electronic devices, AC transmission and distribution, power flow, economic dispatch, transient and stability analysis, short circuit analysis, and HVDC systems, power system protection, power market deregulation.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5714. Introduction to Intelligent Systems Engineering. 3 Credit Hours.

Introduction of the use of artificial intelligence techniques to develop intelligent systems. The course gives the student 1) an overview of what artificial intelligence is and its current state; 2) an overview of intelligent systems --what they are and their possible future role in society; 3) a practical and theoretical knowledge of expert systems, their development, implementation and maintenance and 4) an introduction to intelligent tutoring systems and to provide a perspective about the potential impact of these systems.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5722. Power Electronic Devices and Systems. 3 Credit Hours.

This course introduces power electronic devices and circuits, and their applications in modern power systems. Topics include DC-DC converters in buck and boost topologies, and their modeling and feedback control; AC-DC rectification and control; DC-AC inverters, modeling, and voltage and frequency control; Three-phase inverters, and HVDC transmission. This course will use Matlab/Simulink simulation for student projects and homeworks.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5732. Electric Machines and Drives. 3 Credit Hours.

Fundamentals of electromechanical energy conversion, electric drives and systems. Transformers, DC machines, synchronous machines, induction motors, dq-transformation, vector control of induction motors, reluctance motors, single phase motors, brushless dc motor. Introduction to power electronics and their applications in power drives.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 5826. Information Theory. 3 Credit Hours.

Information Theory is a field that has been central to the development of modern communications and computing technologies. The goal of this course is to provide the student with a thorough understanding of the concepts of entropy and information, and how to apply these to real world problems such as speech recognition, language engineering, signal compression, and financial modeling. A secondary goal is to develop a mathematically rigorous understanding of methods for measuring and manipulating various measures of information in signals and systems.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 3522|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 5999. Research Experience in Electrical Engineering. 0 Credit Hours.

Research Experience provides graduate students laboratory experiences/research practices prior to undertaking independent, directed, master project, master's thesis, or dissertation research. This course allows graduate students the opportunity to learn the use of laboratory equipment, designing and carrying out an experiment(s), collecting preliminary data, field experiences, and participation in laboratory meeting, etc. with faculty which may lead to identifying a faculty mentor. The course will be graded Pass (P) or Fail (F). The Research Experience is a non-repeatable course. After the completion of ECE 5999 - Research Experience in ECE, students will need to be enrolled in independent study, directed research, master's research, master's thesis, dissertation proposal, or dissertation if they continue in an active research program.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 8110. Special Topics in Electrical and Computer Engineering. 3 Credit Hours.

Selected advanced topics in various major research areas under electrical and computer engineering.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

ECE 8324. Mixed Signal VLSI Design. 3 Credit Hours.

Basic MOS device physics, single state amplifiers, frequency response, op amps, switched capacitor circuits, short-channel effects, amplifier design for wireless communication, low power static RAM architectures, layout and packaging.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5324|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 8334. Nano Applications, MEMS & NEMS. 3 Credit Hours.

Nano challenges, quantum mechanics, nano materials, nanolithography, optics, carbon nanotubes, GaNa nanotechnology, MEMS and NEMS Architectures, Mathematical Model of MEMS and NEMS, Applications of Nanotechnology: Bio-Medical applications, Optical Devices, Sensors.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5324|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 8412. Optimal and Robust Control. 3 Credit Hours.

Concept of optimality, calculus of variations, Euler-Lagrange equation, Pontryagin's minimum principle, Bellman's equation, Kalman filter, uncertainties in physical systems; structured and unstructured uncertainties; application of the Lyapunov method to robust control problems; robust optimal control; state space design for finite and infinite horizon problems; H-infinity design.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5412|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 8414. Adaptive Control. 3 Credit Hours.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 8512. Signal Processing and Communication Theory. 3 Credit Hours.

Coherent and non-coherent detection of binary and M-ary signals in noise; waveform coding, linear block coding; convolutional, cyclic and turbo codes; error probability and bandwidth-efficiency plane in the design of digital communications systems; multipath and fading channels; simulation of communication systems.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
(ECE 5512|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently
AND ENGR 5033|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently)

ECE 8514. Applications in Digital Signal Processing. 3 Credit Hours.

FIR and IIR digital filter design, finite word length effects, filter banks, multirate signal processing, spectral analysis (classical, modern, parametric and nonparametric techniques), adaptive filtering (Wiener filter theory) and speech production, analysis, and processing tools and speech coding. Computer experiments using MATLAB will be an integral part of the course.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5033|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 8516. Design and Performance of Communication Networks. 3 Credit Hours.

An overview of the technologies, architectures and protocols used to build high-speed communication networks. Design and performance analysis techniques for computer communication networks. Topics will include: design and performance analysis of wired and wireless local networks, sensor networks, and Internet. Projects will include developing stochastic models, queuing analysis, and simulations.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 8524. Speech Signal Processing. 3 Credit Hours.

Spectral analysis of non-stationary signals, short-time Fourier transform, homomorphic filtering and filter bank, Speech compression, and synthesis techniques. Weiner filtering for speech enhancement.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 8514|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 8525. Fundamentals of Speech Recognition. 3 Credit Hours.

This course introduces students to the theory and implementation of modern day speech recognition systems. We begin with a review of pattern recognition and machine learning, including topics such as Gaussian mixture models and Bayesian models. We then discuss the three main components of a speech recognition system: feature extraction, acoustic modeling and language modeling. We conclude the course with an overview of state of the art systems. Students will learn how to simulate and evaluate complex machine learning algorithms such as hidden Markov models and neural networks. Data-driven methodologies will be emphasized.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
(ENGR 5022|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently)
AND (ENGR 5033|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently)

ECE 8526. Information Theory. 3 Credit Hours.

Information Theory is a field that has been central to the development of modern communications and computing technologies. The goal of this course is to provide the student with a thorough understanding of the concepts of entropy and information, and how to apply these to real world problems such as speech recognition, language engineering, signal compression, and financial modeling. A secondary goal is to develop a mathematically rigorous understanding of methods for measuring and manipulating various measures of information in signals and systems.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
(ENGR 5022|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently)
AND (ENGR 5033|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently)

ECE 8527. Introduction to Machine Learning and Pattern Recognition. 3 Credit Hours.

Pattern recognition theory and practice is concerned with the design, analysis, and development of methods for the classification or description of patterns, objects, signals, and processes. At the heart of this discipline is our ability to infer the statistical behavior of data from limited data sets, and to assign data to classes based on generalized notions of distances in a probabilistic space. Many commercial applications of pattern recognition exist today, including voice recognition, fingerprint classification, and retinal scanners. Recent developments in statistical modeling using Bayesian techniques, neural networks, decision trees, fuzzy logic, and syntactic structures have accelerated the growth of pattern recognition applications. The objective of this course is to introduce fundamental methods of pattern recognition, both statistical and neural, with examples from several application areas.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
(ENGR 5022|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently)
AND (ENGR 5033|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently)

ECE 8528. Advanced Topics in Statistical Modeling for Engineering Applications. 3 Credit Hours.

This course builds on a basic knowledge of machine learning and reviews recent advances in the field. It is a research-oriented course intended to complement a student's thesis or dissertation research. The course will focus on a selection of emerging machine learning algorithms and analyze contemporary publications on these techniques. The emphasis will be on algorithms suited to large, complex data sets. Both supervised and unsupervised learning methodologies will be discussed. Applications will be drawn from several signal processing disciplines including speech, image and bioengineering applications.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
(ENGR 5022|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently)
AND (ENGR 5033|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently)
AND (ECE 8527|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently)

ECE 8529. Fundamentals of EEG Processing. 3 Credit Hours.

Electroencephalography (EEG) records electrical activity along the scalp, measuring spontaneous electrical activity of the brain. The signals measured along the scalp can be correlated with brain activity, which makes it a primary tool for diagnosis of brain-related illnesses. EEG specialists review these waveforms and develop a diagnosis. EEGs traditionally have been used to diagnose epilepsy and strokes. Other common clinical uses have been for diagnoses of coma, encephalopathies, brain death and sleep disorders. EEGs are increasingly being used to diagnose head-related trauma injuries and Alzheimer's disease. Hence, there is a growing need for expertise to interpret EEGs and, equally important, to understand how these conditions manifest themselves in the EEG signal. In this course we will discuss the techniques neurologists use to manually interpret EEGs. A vast archive of clinical EEG recordings will be studied. Since EEG signals are very low-level electrical signals, we will then discuss digital signal processing that is used to convert the raw electrical signals into visualizations that can be readily interpreted. We will also introduce machine learning techniques that are used to automatically interpret and transcribe these signals.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

ECE 8622. Advanced Computer Architecture. 3 Credit Hours.

Advanced course in the design and analysis of computer architecture. Topics will include instruction level parallelism, digital signal processors, network processors and multi-microprocessors. Projects will focus on the design, design analysis and FPGA implementations of computing systems.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5322|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 8712. Power Systems Operation and Control. 3 Credit Hours.

The emphasis of this course is on computational issues that arise in the analysis and solution of the large-scale operations and control problems in actual power systems. Topics include power flow analysis, contingency analysis, security analysis, load forecasting, economic dispatch, unit commitment, optimal power flow, state estimation, and bad data detection, etc. Additional topics for real time control of power system include substation automation, EMS system architecture, distribution management system (DMS), RTU's and PMU's, and situational awareness and visualization.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5712|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 8722. Applications of Advanced Power Electronics Technologies. 3 Credit Hours.

In this course, we will start from the basic components and operation principle of power electronic converters and their advanced applications in modern power systems. In particular, the following topics will be included: converter topologies used for grid applications, converter control approaches, AC and DC microgrids, converter interfaced energy storage systems, smart inverters in distribution automation, etc. Applications of power electronic devices and systems used in modern power systems will be presented.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 5722|Minimum Grade of B-|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 9182. Independent Study I. 3 Credit Hours.

Special study in a particular aspect of engineering under the direct supervision of a graduate faculty member. May be taken once by MS/MSE students and once by Ph.D. students.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

ECE 9282. Independent Study II. 3 Credit Hours.

Special study in a particular aspect of engineering under the direct supervision of a graduate faculty member. May be taken once by Ph.D. students.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

ECE 9324. VLSI Physical Design. 3 Credit Hours.

This course provides a comprehensive background in the principles and algorithms of VLSI physical design. The algorithms are presented in an intuitive manner so that the student can concentrate on the basic idea of the algorithms. The students are provided enough details to implement the algorithms.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
(ECE 8324|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently)
AND (ECE 5324|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently)

ECE 9412. Nonlinear Control System. 3 Credit Hours.

Modeling of nonlinear systems, types of nonlinearity; Phase Plane Analysis, construction of phase portrait, limit cycle, saddle point; Existence and uniqueness of solutions, sensitivity; Lyapunov Stability, region of attraction, construction of Lyapunov functions; Perturbation Analysis variation of parameters, Method of averaging, Describing Functions, frequency domain analysis; Sliding Mode Control, sliding surface; Feedback Linearization, Lie algebra, state and output linearization, applications.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 8412|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 9512. Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory. 3 Credit Hours.

Signal detection and estimation in white and non-white noise, MAP estimation, applications in data and telecommunications. Wiener and Kalman-Bucy filters, linear and non-linear modulation.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ENGR 5033|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 9514. Adaptive Signal Processing. 3 Credit Hours.

Adaptive filter techniques such as Weiner filter, Linear Prediction, Least-Mean-Square, Recursive Least-Squares, Kalman Filtering algorithms. Introduction to the application of adaptive filters to communications, control, and speech processing.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
(ECE 5514|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently
AND ECE 8514|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently)

ECE 9524. Digital Image Processing. 3 Credit Hours.

P2D digital filters, digital image edge detection and segmentation, feature extraction, deblurring, wavelet transforms, JPEG image compression, Fourier optics.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 8514|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 9622. Parallel Processing Architectures. 3 Credit Hours.

This course provides an in-depth study of the design, engineering, and evaluation of modern parallel computers. Design issues covered include: naming, replication, synchronization, latency, overhead, and bandwidth. Other topics include scalable multiprocessors and interconnection network design.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may not be repeated for additional credits.

Pre-requisites:
ECE 8612|Minimum Grade of C|May not be taken concurrently.

ECE 9991. Directed Research. 1 to 6 Credit Hour.

Under the guidance of a faculty member, students will select a topic in electro-technology to be researched using at least five references. An extensive research paper must be submitted which will be reviewed by two faculty members. The project report must also be presented at an open seminar. Projects related to industrial applications are encouraged. For non-thesis students only.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

ECE 9994. Preliminary Examination Preparation. 1 to 6 Credit Hour.

This course is intended for Ph.D. students who have completed their coursework but who have not yet passed both the Ph.D. Preliminary Examination.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

ECE 9995. Project. 1 to 3 Credit Hour.

Under the guidance of a faculty member, students will select a topic in electro-technology to be researched using at least five references. Student present the research at an open seminar, and submits an extensive research paper, which will be reviewed by two faculty members. Projects related to industrial applications are encouraged. For non-thesis students only.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

ECE 9996. Thesis. 1 to 3 Credit Hour.

Under the guidance of a faculty member, students will select a topic in electro-technology, and conduct research leading to submission and oral presentation of a thesis proposal and the final defense of the thesis. For thesis students only.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

ECE 9998. Pre-Dissertation Research. 1 to 6 Credit Hour.

This course is intended for Ph.D. students who have passed both the Preliminary and Qualifying Examinations but who have not been elevated to candidacy.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

ECE 9999. Dissertation Research. 1 to 6 Credit Hour.

This course is intended only for those students who have achieved Ph.D. Candidacy status. A minimum of 6 semester hours is required for graduation.

Level Registration Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Levels: Graduate.
Student Attribute Restrictions: Must be enrolled in one of the following Student Attributes: Dissertation Writing Student.

Repeatability: This course may be repeated for additional credit.

Contacts

Program Web Address:

https://www.temple.edu/academics/degree-programs/electrical-engineering-phd-en-ece-phd

Department Information:

College of Engineering

ATTN: ECE Programs

1947 N. 12th Street

Philadelphia, PA 19122-6077

marshad@temple.edu

215-204-7800

Submission Address for Application Materials:

https://apply.temple.edu/Engineering/

Department Contacts:

Admissions:

Cheryl Sharp

cheryl.sharp@temple.edu

215-204-7800

Graduate Program Director, ECE:

Iyad Obeid, Ph.D.

iobeid@temple.edu

215-204-9033

Chairperson, ECE:

Li Bai, Ph.D.

lbai@temple.edu

215-204-6616